Requiem

   A setting of the Roman Catholic mass for the dead including both ordinary and proper prayers. The name is taken from the first piece sung in a traditional liturgy, the Introit Requiem aeternam {}dona eis, Domine ("Eternal rest grant to them, O Lord"). It could be sung on All Souls Day, November 2, and on the day of someone’s burial as well as on funeral anniversaries and certain other commemorations.
   The texts for a Requiem mass include:
   Introit—Requiem aeternam{}
   Kyrie
   Gradual—Requiem aeternam{}
   Tract—Absolve, Domine{}
   Sequence—Dies irae, dies illa{}
   Offertory—Domine Jesu Christe{}
   Sanctus-Benedictus
   Agnus Dei (altered)
   Communion—Lux aeterna luceat eis{}
   On solemn occasions the following could be sung during the committal rites:
   ResponsoryLibera me, Domine{}
   AntiphonIn Paradisum{}
   The will of Guillaume Du Fay (1474) requests that his Requiem be sung on the day after his funeral, but the work does not survive. The earliest extant polyphonic setting (late 15th century) is by Johannes Ockeghem, which sets only the Introit, Kyrie, and the alternative Gradual (Si ambulem in medio umbrae mortis) and Tract (Sicut {}cervus) allowed before the Council of Trent. In all, 41 Requiems composed before 1600 survive, including two by Orlandus Lassus, two by Tomas Luis de Victoria, and one by Giovanni da Palestrina. They show considerable variety in which texts were set polyphonically and which were chanted, and in general they are conservative in comparison to contemporary polyphonic mass ordinaries: no parody technique, little imitative texture, and a great reliance on cantus firmus.
   After 1600, Requiem masses often adapted operatic and other secular idioms, as did other sacred genres. Often they were composed for specific commissions or occasions, as was Giuseppe Verdi’s Requiem (1874) for the great Italian writer AlessandroManzoni (1785– 1873). That work, like many others of the 19th and 20th centuries, calls for very large chorus, soloists, and symphony orchestra, making regular liturgical usage impossible. These works live on in the concert repertory of choral societies. Some of the most famous are the Requiems of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1791), Luigi Cherubini (C minor, 1817), Hector Berlioz (1837), Franz Liszt (1867–1871), Gabriel Fauré (performed 1894), Antonín Dvořák (1890), and Maurice Duruflé (1947).
   See also German Requiem; War Requiem.

Historical dictionary of sacred music. . 2006.

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  • REQUIEM — Dans la liturgie romaine, le propre des différentes messes porte le nom des premiers mots de l’introït: la messe des funérailles s’appelle ainsi proprement «messe Requiem ». C’est à l’importance prise par cette cérémonie, en particulier pour des… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Requiem — Sn Totenmesse erw. fach. (18. Jh.) Entlehnung. Gebildet aus dem ersten Wort der Fügung requiēm aeternam dōna eīs ewige Ruhe gib ihnen , dem Beginn des liturgischen Eingangslieds der Totenmesse. Zu l. requiēs f. Ruhe, Todesruhe , zu l. quiēs f.… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • Requiem — Re qui*em (r? kw? ?m;277), n. [Acc. of L. requies rest, the first words of the Mass being Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine, give eternal rest to them, O lord; pref. re re + quies quiet. See {Quiet}, n., and cf. {Requin}.] 1. (R.C.Ch.) A mass… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Requiem — Requiem, in der Römisch Katholischen Kirche die von dem Priester im schwarzen Ornat celebrirte Seelen u. Todtenmesse, weil sie mit den Worten: Requiem aeternam dona iis etc. (Ewige Ruhe gib ihnen etc.) anfängt. Das R. wird entweder am Tage des… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • requiem — UK [ˈrekwɪəm] / US or requiem mass UK / US noun [countable] Word forms requiem : singular requiem plural requiems a) a Christian ceremony in which people pray for someone who has died b) music a piece of music that can be performed as part of… …   English dictionary

  • réquiem — (plural réquiems) sustantivo masculino 1. Área: religión Oración que se reza en la iglesia por los difuntos: Rezaremos un réquiem por el descanso de su alma. 2. Área: música Composición musical escrita sobre el texto de la misa que se dedica a… …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • Requiem — Requĭem, in der röm. kath. Kirche die Messe für Verstorbene (Missa pro defunctis), nach den Anfangsworten der Liturgie: »Requiem aeternam dona eis« (lat., schenke ihnen die ewige Ruhe), als musikal. Messe aus 5 Sätzen bestehend: Requiem mit Kyrie …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • réquiem — ‘Composición musical que se canta con el texto litúrgico de la misa de difuntos’. También se llama réquiem o misa de réquiem a la misa de difuntos. Su plural es réquiems (→ plural, 1h y k): «No todo fueron réquiems en la República de las Letras… …   Diccionario panhispánico de dudas

  • requiem — (n.) mass for repose of the soul of the dead, c.1300, from L. requiem, accusative sing. of requies rest (after labor), repose, from re , intensive prefix, + quies quiet (see QUIET (Cf. quiet)). It is the first word of the Mass for the Dead in the …   Etymology dictionary

  • Requĭem — (lat.), in der römisch kath. Kirche die stille oder gesungene Seelen und Totenmesse (Missa pro defunctis), die ihren Namen von den Anfangsworten des Introitus: »R. aeternam dona eis« (»die ewige Ruhe gib ihnen«) erhalten hat. Das R. hat vier… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Requiem — Requiem, ein Kirchengesang bei den Katholiken, der sich mit den Worten anfängt: Requiem aeternam dona eis. Da derselbe gewöhnlich bei feierlichen Todtenämtern gesungen wird, so nennt man auch die musikalischen Seelenmessen, welche zu Ehren… …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

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